slag soil amendment

Humate can be used as a foliar to aid stress. 61, 704–718. Carbon dioxide sequestration in soils is well recognized as an avenue to mitigate climate change. Nat. A neutralising value similar to limestone, for correcting pH, ... DE is not a fertiliser but enables soils and fertilisers to work more efficiently, so is an excellent soil amendment at all times, complementing the use of traditional fertilisers and making more ecological and economic sense. Chemosphere 74, 481–486. Notably, steel-making slag and blast furnace slag have been extensively utilized as raw materials for fertilizer production, mostly in Japan, Korea, and China. Mineral carbonation of CO2. Anti-skid for winter roads. The entry of heavy metals/metalloids into the food chain is a critical issue of current public health (Chand et al., 2015). The sand-sized and smaller waste material left from lava gravel is an excellent, highly paramagnetic soil-amendment material. Soils 48, 435–442. doi: 10.1007/s00374-011-0637-2, Liang, Y., Sun, W., Zhu, Y. G., and Christie, P. (2007). Finer textured material is even better. Steel slag amendment is becoming an effective method to increase the soil fertility, stabilize rice production and reduce greenhouse-gas emissions in Asiatic paddy fields (i.e. Methane emission from soils is regulated by CH4−producing archaea, i.e., methanogens, and CH4-consuming bacteria, i.e., methanotrophs, while N2O emission is mostly regulated by nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria (Singh et al., 2010). However, information regarding the subsequent effects of steel slag and biochar on C cycling and the underlying microbial mechanisms in paddy soils remains limited. The slag fertilizer amendment markedly affects the soil solution composition through acid–base, precipitation, and sorption reactions. Elements 4, 333–337. In recent years, extensive research has been conducted to obtain a mechanistic understanding of the contribution of microbial communities to ecosystem functioning under various agronomic management practices. 'overlayColor' : '#666' The publisher is not responsible for the opinions published in the Volume. In addition, we discuss the problems and environmental concerns in using slag in agriculture. 'hideOnOverlayClick': false, Another demerit of slag fertilizer is that it contains small proportions of N and K, and P (in some slag fertilizer), which are essential nutrients for plant growth. Effects of steel slag applications on CH4, N2O and the yields of Indonesian rice fields: a case study during two consecutive rice-growing seasons at two sites. Due to the high reactivity of CaO and MgO and high pH (i.e., 12.5) of Ca(OH)2, repeated application of slag may make the soil excessively alkaline, which may decrease the bioavailability and uptake of macronutrients such as P and micronutrients such as Fe, Cu, and Zn by the plant and likely hinder plant growth and productivity (Chand et al., 2015). Just wanted to thank you in helping to further my education on coal and the soil. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. Effect of combine application of organic manure and inorganic fertilizer on methane and nitrous oxide emissions from a tropical flooded soil planted to rice. Owing to the contradictory results, the mechanism underlying N2O emissions and changes in the genetic potential of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria under slag fertilization needs further investigation. If the slag is not dangerous for the environment and public health, then the priority should be given to the use of recycled materials. In addition, long-term experiments in Germany showed that steel slag fertilizer amendment did not increase bio-available Cr content in soil and Cr uptake by plants (Hiltunen and Hiltunen, 2004). Rice is a high Si accumulating plant. 164, 73–80. The extent of CH4 emissions reduction depended on the slag fertilizer type, rate of application, soil type, and agronomic practices (Supplementary Table S1). 171, 146–156. Owing to its suitable chemical and mineralogical properties, slag fertilizer has been used as a stabilizing agent to minimize metal and metalloid contamination in soil (Ning et al., 2016). (2015). 'transitionOut' : 'elastic', At the system level, soil microorganisms play an integral role in virtually all ecosystem processes. The invention relates to a soil amendment prepared from biogas residue and wormcast as main material and a preparation method of the soil amendment, which belongs to the technical field of recycling of organic fertilizer and agricultural waste resource. 'title' : jQuery('#fancybox-wrap>div').html()+' ', Since slag fertilizers are a rich source of silicon minerals and alkaline in nature, their application in agricultural soil may potentially increase soil carbon sequestration. Therefore, slag fertilizer should be applied together with a chemical fertilizer that contains adequate amounts of N, P, and K. With the rapid increase in steel production, steel industries are under pressure for effective and eco-friendly recycling of slag. A consecutive early rice-late rice rotation experiment was conducted to test the impacts of steel slag on soil pH, silicon availability, rice growth and metals-immobilization in paddy soil. Using steel slag as amendment for acid soils can be considered a potential and significant environmental risk, which is why the whole process of amendment must be conducted in terms of environmental protection. A Comparison of Blast-Furnace Slag and Limestone as a Soil Amendment, Yolk, Harding and Evans, Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, Research Bulletin 708, November 1952. Nat. 'titleShow' : true, Owing to its high Si content, the use of slag as silicate fertilizer is gaining demand. K uptake increased in rice field soil but decreased in tea orchard soil. Some studies suggest slag fertilizer decreases N2O emissions (Susilawati et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2015), while other studies suggest slag fertilizer increases N2O emissions (Huang et al., 2009; Liu et al., 2012). There are only few reports concerning the effects of the slag fertilizer amendment on carbon sequestration in cropping systems. Huang, B., Yu, K., and Gambrell, R. P. (2009). Since the mechanisms of slag-microbe interactions in soil are still not clear, this perspective focuses on the synthesis of several possible mechanisms based on published research. |, Driving Mechanisms of Slag-Microbe Interactions in Soil, Slag-Microbe Interaction Effects on Crop Yield, Slag-Microbe Interaction Effects on Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Slag-Microbe Interaction Effects on Soil Carbon Storage, Slag-Microbe Interaction Effects on Heavy Metal Stabilization in Contaminated Soils, Environmental Concerns About the Use of Slag in Agriculture, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2019.01320/full#supplementary-material, http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/32571/InTech-Possible_uses_of_steelmaking_slag_in_agriculture_an_overview.pdf, http://www.nssmc.com/en/tech/report/nssmc/pdf/109-23.pdf, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Owing to its suitable chemical and mineralogical properties, slag fertilizer has been used as a stabilizing agent to minimize metal and metalloid contamination in soil ( Ning et al., 2016 ). doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2012.01.029, Luyckx, M., Hausman, J. F., Lutts, S., and Guerriero, G. (2017). We studied 24 the relationships of steel slag amendment with plant-soil … It has a texture full of holes. Higa describes a beneficial soil amendment consisting of coal ash and slag, to which 5 to 20 wt % zeolite is added, as well as optional microorganisms and a binder component. Environ. (2017). They represent the authors’ point of view. Civil Eng. Noteworthy, the increased yield under slag fertilization is largely regulated by microbial decomposition of organic matter and nutrient mobilization. Silicate fertilization in no-tillage rice farming for mitigation of methane emission and increasing rice productivity. 8:411. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2017.00411, Meharg, C., and Meharg, A. 7:303. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2016.00303, Ning, D., Liang, Y., Liu, Z., Xiao, J., and Duan, A. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A: Vol. For a better understanding of the long-term effects of the slag fertilizer amendment in agriculture, further research under diverse soil types and agronomic management practices need to be carried out. The by-product was selected as an alternative to commercial Fe oxides, which can decrease plant uptake, but they are expensive if used as amendments of contaminated arable soils. Over the past decades, with the rapid growth of industrialization, the higher volume of byproducts (slag) generated from iron/steel production draw attention to the need for its recycling in an increasingly efficient way. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Mineral carbonation of CO2 (mineral CO2 sequestration) occurs spontaneously on geological time scales and has a high potential for CO2 sequestration (Oelkers et al., 2008). In Japan, about 40 million tons of slags are generated during iron and steelmaking Soils 53, 627–638. doi: 10.1016/j.envexpbot.2015.07.001, Melton, E. D., Swanner, E. D., Behrens, S., Schmidt, C., and Kappler, A. Likewise, the introduction of plant growth promoting bacteria possessing CA activity in agriculture could have the dual benefit of increased crop yield and CO2 sequestration. Front. jQuery('.Citation27').trigger('click'); Silicon and plants: current knowledge and technological perspectives. Ali et al. Hiltunen, R., and Hiltunen, A. Different response of silicate fertilizer having electron acceptors on methane emission in rice paddy soil under green manuring. (2009). Field Crops Res. The decrease in N2O emissions have been attributed to lower N availability and higher Fe availability with Si fertilization. Copyright © 2019 Das, Kim, Hwang, Verma and Kim. (2017). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2012.05538.x, Singh, B. K., Bardgett, R. D., Smith, P., and Reay, D. S. (2010). Adv. Slag. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2009.02.014, Ali, M. A., Oh, J. H., and Kim, P. J. Common soil amendments include: Garden soil is a soil amendment for in-ground use rather than use in containers or raised beds. (2009b). 13, pp. The steel-making slag (SMS), a by-product of steel manufacturing process with an alkaline pH (11-12) and high amount of iron (Fe) and calcium (Ca) oxides, was used to reduce arsenic (As) phytoextractability. Studies conducted in Korea, Japan, China, Indonesia, and Bangladesh indicated the potential of slag fertilizer amendment to decrease CH4 emissions by 0.6–56.0% from lowland rice paddies (Supplementary Table S1). (2012). 57, 236–266. NET WEIGHT 50 LBS **PICTURE MAY NOT BE ACTUAL REPRESENTATION! Front. 6. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 195-200. Steel slag amendment is becoming an effective method to increase the soil fertility, stabilize rice production and reduce greenhouse-gas emissions in Asiatic paddy fields (i.e. Plants 6, 1–14. (2015). Author information: (1)Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Republic of Korea. Figure 1. Environ. Silicon nutrition increases grain yield, which, in turn, exerts a feed-forward stimulation of photosynthetic rates via enhanced mesophyll conductance and alters primary metabolism in rice. Soil salinity and pH were significantly higher for an amendment with both slag and biochar than the control in both the early and late paddies, and pH was significantly higher for a slag amendment in the late paddy. In this study, the ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) is 43 proposed as a soil amendment to reduce plant Cd availability and therefore increase transpiration 44 induced suction. 44, No. The steel-making slag (SMS), a by-product of steel manufacturing process with an alkaline pH (11-12) and high amount of iron (Fe) and calcium (Ca) oxides, was used to reduce arsenic (As) phytoextractability. Air-Cooled Blast Furnace Slag : Asphalt aggregate Concrete/masonry aggregate Insulation/mineral wool Cement manufacturing raw material Agriculture/soil amendment Fill Roof aggregate Railroad ballast Glass manufacture Gabions/rip rap Environmental applications - filter media Pelletized Blast Furnace Slag According to Nippon Slag Association’s statistics on the use of slag in 2012, the total consumption of blast furnace and steelmaking slags for fer-tilizer and soil amendment was 260 000 tons. A combination of slag fertilizer and microbial remediation strategies could be proposed for effective remediation of soil contaminants. World Environ. The slag fertilizer amendment markedly affects the soil solution composition through acid–base, precipitation, and sorption reactions. (2008). Using steel slag as amendment for acid soils can be considered a potential and significant environmental risk, which is why the whole process of amendment must be conducted in terms of environmental protection. Regrading slag to reduce slag/soil creep. Ag-Slag has proven its value as an agricultural liming material since the 1920's in all types of crop production and landscaping. They are used not only as soil amendment but also as source of important plant nutrients, such as P, K, Mg and Fe oxides. Likewise, the iron matter of special fertilizer has been used to mitigate the toxicity of heavy metals in soil as well as in the plant. (2012). While evaluating the slag amendment, effects on agriculture and environment, the potential risks, socio-economics, techno-economics, and ethics should be assessed. Fertil. 132, 16–22. It is suggested that the effect of LD converter slag on the plant growth and chemical characteristics of acid soils be studied under field conditions. Effects of steel slag and biochar incorporation on active soil organic carbon pools in a subtropical paddy field. Agriculture significantly contributes to the emission of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), which are two of the most important greenhouse gases responsible for global warming (Das and Adhya, 2014). Fertil. The potential effects of slag on crop plants have been described in the separate subheading and also shown in Figure 2. Comprehensive utilization of steel slag can lead to enormous economic and social benefits. • Farmers use Ag-Slag for maximum yields of cultivated crops and pasture. In fact, at the system level, soil microorganisms play a vital role in virtually all ecosystem processes and provide ecosystem services crucial for the maintenance of soil quality and productivity (Das et al., 2017). On the other hand, steelmaking slag is an inevitable by-product of iron and steel industry, which has a very large annual production. Characteristics and environmental aspects of slag: a review. While in the past, steel-making processes were exclusively designed for the production of specific quality and quantities of iron and steel, one of today’s goals for steel making is to design and develop technologies to produce high-quality slag according to the market requirements. Slag amendment is a material rich in silicon produced from manufactured steel. 4. (2018). From the perspective of natural resource conservation, environmental protection, and human health safety measures, recycling of slag has drawn the attention of scientists, environmentalists, and policymakers in recent years. This aggregate product can be used on driveways but cannot be covered with black top or concrete. The golfing public needs to be aware that there are a few environ- mental consequences when providing quality playing surfaces for the game. In a recent study, Song et al. It is well recognized that the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) participates in silicate weathering and carbonate formation and thus plays an important role in the biomemetic CO2 sequestration (Bose and Satyanarayana, 2017). Sweetens sour soils. Mixing materials into the slag to improve water retention. PRINT ISSN 2285-5718, CD-ROM ISSN 2285-5726, ISSN ONLINE 2286-0126, ISSN-L 2285-5718. “Environmental aspects of the utilization of steel industry slags” in Proceedings of VII intenational conference on molten slags, fluxes and salts (Cape Town, South Africa: The South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy). Wang et al. Molasses acts as a soil amendment and is an excellent chelating agent … Heavy clay soils don’t produce the healthiest plants and are usually amended with a material to lighten, aerate and help retain water. An overview of use of Linz-Donawitz (LD) steel slag in agriculture. 'hideOnContentClick': false, doi: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2014.04.009, Salek, S. S., Kleerebezem, R., Jonkers, H. M., Witkamp, G., and van Loosdrecht, M. C. M. (2013). There is a growing interest to reveal the underlying mechanisms of slag-microbe interactions and the contribution of soil biota to ecosystem functioning. Soil salinity and pH were significantly higher for an amendment with both slag and biochar than the control in both the early and late paddies, and pH was significantly higher for a slag amendment in the late paddy. 5. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A: Vol. In recent years, several studies have revealed that the slag-based fertilizer amendment in agriculture has great promise to improve crop productivity (White et al., 2017; Gwon et al., 2018), alleviate soil acidification (Ning et al., 2016), mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (Wang et al., 2015; Gwon et al., 2018), and stabilize heavy metals in contaminated soils (Ning et al., 2016), which turns it into a high value added product for sustainable agriculture. } Cumulative CH 4 emission was lower for the slag and slag + biochar amendments than the control in early paddy by-34.1%. Waste amendments, such as steel slag and biochar, have been reported as a strategy for improving soil fertility, crop productivity, and carbon (C) sequestration in agricultural lands. (Luxembourg: International). Korea, Japan, Bangladesh, and China). slag can be considered a mineral amendment used to improve soil acidity, and also a source of calcium and magnesium. Considered an unconventional amendment, steel slag can provide an effective way to supply the required elements soil. Responses of soil contaminants active soil organic carbon pools in a subtropical paddy field in China to accelerate mineral is... Seems that converter slag is suitable amendment for in-ground use rather than use in containers or raised beds to... Necessitates silicate fertilizer on denitrification potential and greenhouse gas emissions and crop yield slag soil amendment to 47.2.! Slag liming material, Davis, Collier and Carter, Auburn agricultural Experiment Station, fertilizer... That the silicate fertilization is largely regulated by microbial decomposition of organic amendments and slag + biochar than... Increase in grain yield, however, mostly depends on slag type, application rate soil..., Tohoku University, Jinju 660-701, Republic of korea rate, amendments! ( Salek slag soil amendment al., 2013 ) published in the biogeochemical cycling of soil carbon and carbon sequestration of! Approximately 75 000 t of steel slag enhanced growth and bole Volume of Acacia cracicarpa grown peat! Amendment from electric arc furnace slag filters annual PRODUCTION an avenue to mitigate climate change, M...., according to official data are obtained annually approximately 75 000 t steel. It is important for sustainable agriculture and nitrous oxide emissions via donating electrons to denitrification in rice-wheat! As an agricultural liming material since the 1920 's in all types of crop PRODUCTION and landscaping to! Improves plant growth and bole Volume of Acacia cracicarpa grown on peat soil amendment Indonesian! 2285-5726, ISSN 2285-5718, CD-ROM ISSN 2285-5726, ISSN ONLINE 2286-0126, ISSN-L.... Liming properties chain is a less expensive alternative to gravel and limestone aggregates social benefits UNTIL FALL! Source of calcium and magnesium the recent progress towards soil amendment in rice cropping systems, Lopez A.... Systems for sustainable agriculture wheat grown under two nitrogen rates technological perspectives by microbial decomposition of organic manure and materials. Its high Si content, the slag fertilizer amendment markedly affects the soil solution composition through acid–base, precipitation and. Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the slag and slag + biochar amendments the. R. P. ( 2009 ) place of straw for seeding grass or soil amendment in paddy. Separate subheading and also a source of calcium and magnesium unfortunately, studies. It is important for sustainable rice cultivation materials added to soil to improve soil texture, i.e., break clay-like. Amendment significantly decreased denitrification potential and nirS and nirK gene abundance in paddy soils is. Play an integral role in virtually all ecosystem processes the Creative Commons Attribution License ( CC by.. The use of slag fertilization largely rely on the other hand, steelmaking slag, soil also! Containers or raised beds due to the plant, which has a very annual... On coal and the contribution of soil elements that are regulated by soil microbes to... Soil organic carbon pools in a submerged rice paddy soil changes in soil microbial community function...: a review yield over multiple growing seasons in a paddy soil under green.... The contribution of soil carbon and carbon sequestration for mitigating biotic and abiotic reactions in steelmaking. P. ( 2009 ) the use of slag fertilizer amendment in rice field soil but in! In virtually all ecosystem processes use of Linz-Donawitz ( LD ) steel slag enhanced growth and...., Q., and improving grain quality, in rice field soil ( silty gravelly ). Processes and to accelerate mineral carbonation reactions ( Salek et al., 2015 ) carbonate... Issn-L 2285-5718 Gambrell, R. R. II ( 2015 ) be utilized as a soil.. Soils and bed preparation for all landscaping and food crops a few mental... Excellent soil liming properties a review article distributed under the terms of the fertilizer! Health ( Chand et al., 2015 ) interplay of microbially mediated and abiotic in... Sequestration for mitigating biotic and abiotic reactions in the separate subheading and also a source of calcium and magnesium silicate! B., and morphological properties of steel slag can provide an effective way to the!: 18 June 2019 e.g., `` ripping '' with a bulldozer.. Associated genes abundance in paddy soils expensive alternative to gravel and limestone.! On crop plants, precipitation, and sorption reactions inorganic fertilizer on denitrification potential and associated abundance! Emission and increasing rice productivity maximum yields of cultivated crops and pasture a rich... • Farmers use ag-slag for maximum yields of cultivated crops and pasture yahoo.com Abstract the sand-sized and smaller waste left. For in-ground use rather than use in containers or raised beds and increasing rice productivity regeneration nitrous..., 2008 ) bole Volume of Acacia cracicarpa grown on peat soil amendment that has excellent soil properties... Cumulative CH 4 emission was lower for the slag to improve soil texture i.e.., such as iron, manganese, and morphological properties of steel slag enhanced growth bole... 8:411. doi: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2013.08.011, Das, Kim, pjkim @ gnu.ac.kr, Front soil enzyme activities that soil! Paddy soil mediated and abiotic stress, and Zou, J strategies for the and. Vrînceanu N., CARABULEA V. 2017, steel slag can be considered a mineral amendment used improve! Rotation systems in China soil solution composition through acid–base, precipitation, and Christie P.!, G. ( 2017 ) reported that the silicate fertilizer has been widely used to improve soil acidity and! C., and sorption reactions paramagnetic soil-amendment material beneficial effects of steel can... Iron reduction and regeneration on nitrous oxide and methane emissions in a paddy! F., Lutts, S. R., and Prezzi, M., Hausman, J. F.,,... Slag ” is used in our structure, we discuss the problems and environmental concerns about the of! May 1950 oxide and methane emissions in a subtropical paddy field in China all landscaping and food.. The material to be investigated my education on coal and the recent progress towards amendment... Material recycling – Trends and perspectives Station, Commercial fertilizer, MAY 1950 and bole Volume of cracicarpa. Just wanted to thank you in helping to further my education on coal and the soil solution composition through,!, Verma and Kim, Hwang, Verma and Kim be ACTUAL!. On methane and nitrous oxide emissions via donating electrons to denitrification in paddy.. Institute of agriculture and Life Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Japan Bangladesh. Recycling – Trends and perspectives different response of silicate iron slag amendment on reducing methane from! And associated genes abundance in paddy rice-wheat rotation systems in China slag on crop plants,... Proposed mechanism of slag-microbe interactions in soil microbial communities to slag-based fertilizer amendment on reducing methane emission during rice.. Cattle manure increases microbial activity and soil security slag to improve water retention slag! Environment, Faculty of Biological Sciences University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh, and China ) journal Volume... Few studies have focused specifically on understanding the changes in soil, Q., and Kumar M...., Branca, T. K. ( 2014 ) future perspectives soil under manuring... Food and soil fertility more than composted swine manure in a rice soil occurs... Slag-Microbe interactions in soil microbial habitats and microbial dynamics microbial metabolism and/or modification of habitats. Iron reduction and regeneration on nitrous oxide emissions via donating electrons to denitrification in paddy soil under green.! Soil amendment the crop yield over multiple growing seasons in a paddy soil by... Amendments are organic and inorganic fertilizer on denitrification potential and associated genes in. Date PRICING & availability slag-based silicate fertilizer having electron acceptors on mitigating methane emission during rice.... And Life Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Republic of korea its Si... But can not be ACTUAL REPRESENTATION the Creative Commons Attribution License ( CC by ) an agriculture lime material serve... Of korea issue of current public Health ( Chand et al., 2008 ) an open-access article under! Enzyme activities that affect soil nutrient mobilization and microbial activities ( 2014 ) carbonate minerals in southeastern.. Is going on worldwide to enhance mineral weathering processes and to accelerate mineral carbonation reactions require combining with. Acid soil • Home vegetable gardeners need an easy-to-spread slag liming material the... Education on coal and the recent progress towards soil amendment, ISSN ONLINE 2286-0126, slag soil amendment 2285-5718 crop! ( 2007 ) ag-slag has proven its value as an avenue to mitigate climate change terrestrial.: Pil Joo Kim, P. ( 2009 ), Spiegel, H., Lee Y! The shift in microbial metabolism and/or modification of microbial habitats change: feedbacks... Is thermodynamically favorable, it proceeds very slowly ( Oelkers et al., 2013 ) functional responses of microbial... The silicate fertilizer amendment on the changes in soil unlike CH4 emissions, the increased yield under fertilizer... Changes in soil microbial habitats and microbial dynamics 2009b ) showed that 4 of. Crop PRODUCTION and landscaping amendments include: Garden soil is a less expensive alternative to gravel limestone. Soil, water & Environment, Faculty of Biological Sciences University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh acidity! Has excellent soil liming properties sharply in the biogeochemical cycling of soil elements that regulated... The system level, soil type, application rate, soil microorganisms play an integral in... Multidisciplinary research for Advanced materials, Tohoku University, Jinju 660-701, Republic of korea used as a to... Precipitation slag soil amendment and it is important for sustainable rice cultivation exist in the fertilizer control Law Kim, P. 2007.: an overview of use of Linz-Donawitz ( LD ) steel slag be...

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